This theme deals with projects having image technologies and processing with applications in medical physics as main component but also contain areas of active collaboration with subjects in Themes 1 & 3. Collins group’s  major contributions include the development of robust, automatic medical image processing techniques applied to neurology and neurosurgery. This includes algorithms, such as ANIMAL, for linear and non-linear image registration as well as template building. His work finds also application in Theme 1 in the context of image-guided radiation therapy procedures where image registration techniques have been used in the Seuntjens’ group for lung deformable registration. Després group’s focus on image processing techniques using commodity hardware also has applications covering themes 1 and 2 as well. Metal artifact correction algorithms for computed tomography and cone-beam computed tomography imaging devices are developed within Beaulieu’s  research group, and align with both themes 1 & 2. Pike’s research is concerned with the development of novel quantitative MRI methods and applying them to address fundamental questions in basic and clinical neuroscience. His work can be broadly divided into two themes related to brain anatomy and physiology. Reader’s research is situated in advanced PET reconstruction algorithms where his group has developed methods that permit a more accurate quantification of function within volumes of interest in the brain, which is of high importance to neuroscience research. These new methodologies have a direct impact on applications covered under Theme 1: both fMRI and PET techniques are key components in upcoming technology, such as the MR-Linac in radiation therapy and PET-MR technology in nuclear medicine and radiation therapy. These areas are active research topics in El Naqa’s group who has developed new techniques for multimodality image analysis.